设为首页
联系站长
加入收藏
 您现在的位置: 中华民族精神网 >> 文章 >> 横向比较 >> 和平与发展 >> [专题]建议呼吁 >> 正文  
  墨家的和平主义与民间联合国——在巴拉圭全球和平节峰会上的发言     
墨家的和平主义与民间联合国——在巴拉圭全球和平节峰会上的发言
[ 作者:胡星斗    转贴自:作者赐稿    点击数:2425    更新时间:2008-07-13    文章录入:admin ]

 

 

  Mohist Pacifism and Non-Governmental United Nations

  Star Hu

  Mozi (also known as Mo Tzu) was one of the greatest Chinese thinkers who advocated for people’s livelihood and a religionist. He was also world’s earliest pacifist precursor.
  Mozi’s philosophy, known as Mohism, advocates for the concepts of “jian’ai”, which can be translated as “impartial caring” or “universal love”, “tian zhi”, which means “conforming with God’s will to let people live a peaceful and affluent life”, and “ming gui”, which argues that people should believe that gods and ghosts are able to supervise the citizenry and officials. Mozi formed the first religious group in China, and served as the first self-appointed leader. He traveled widely across China in order to promote pacifism, his stories remembered ever after.
  According to the chapter "Gongshu" in Mozi, he once walked for ten days to Ying, the capital of the state of Chu, after knowing that Chu was planning an attack on the state of Song with a new model of military contraption called “cloud ladders” designed by Gongshu Ban, the chief military strategist of Chu.
  Upon meeting Gongshu Ban, Mozi said, “I was offended by someone in the North. I would like to award you with gold of 12 kilograms if you can kill him for me.” Gongshu Ban refused by saying that “I value virtue and morality, and I shall not kill him.” After hearing that, Mozi did obeisance to Gongshu Ban, saying, “Please allow me to preach. I heard that you made cloud ladders to attack Song. What guilt does Song have? Chu has more than ample land but is lack of population. It is unwise to seize land that you don’t need with the sacrifice of people that you already lack. And it is immoral to attack Song since it does not deserve it. You value virtue and morality, and wouldn’t kill one man, but now you are assisting the killing of thousands in Song. That’s not the correct understanding of morality.” Gongshu Ban was thus persuaded and agreed to introduce Mozi to the Lord of Chu.
  Mozi presented his argument as soon as he met the Lord of Chu, “There is a man, who owns a magnificent carriage but renounces it, and wants to steal a broken carriage owned by his neighbor. Though he has splendid clothes, but still wants to steal the neighbor’s coarse sackcloth. He gives up his delicious food, and intends to steal his neighbor’s chaff. What kind of person is he?” The Lord said, “he must be a kleptomaniac.” Mozi said, “The state of Chu covers an area one hundred times larger than that of Song; Chu has a rich land where countless rhinoceros and elks can be found and, in its Yangtze and Hanshui Rivers, fish and other aquatic animals abound, but in Song, you can’t find even hares; Chu boasts great pines, catalpa trees and camphor woods, but Song doesn’t even have tall trees. My point is that, if your majesty is determined to attack the state of Song, you are in the same category with that kleptomaniac. I believe that, your majesty cannot conquer Song, and will ruin your reputation in morality if an attack is launched.” “Well said,” the Lord responded, “however, Gongshu Ban has already made the cloud ladders for me, and we will take Song for sure.”
  At the Chu court, Mozi engaged in simulated war games with Gongshu Ban, and overturned each one of his stratagems. When Gongshu Ban threatened him with death, Mozi informed the Lord that his students and followers had already trained the soldiers of Song on his fortification methods, so it would be useless to kill him. The Lord was forced to call off the war therefore.
  Upon learning that Luyang Wenjun was launching a war against the country of Zheng, Mozi tried to dissuade him by saying, “If all the big cities in Luyang started invading the smaller ones, and the powerful clans started fighting the weaker ones, maiming lives and looting people’s livestock, food and clothes, what would you do?” Luyang Wenjun answered, “In that case, I would punish them severely as they are all under my rule.” Mozi reasoned, “God reigns the entire world, just as you do the country of Luyang. Wouldn’t He punish you, if you waged a war against Zheng?” Luyang Wenju retorted, “Why are you trying to stop me from fighting Zheng? Zheng’s last three monarchs were killed by their own people and as a result, God punished them by depriving them of all their harvests in the past three years. What I am trying to do is exactly in line with the will of God.” Mozi replied, “But God’s punishment is enough for the Zheng people. Suppose there was a man whose son was boorish and brutal. The father has every reason to whip him, but wouldn’t it sound absurd if his elderly neighbour bashed him and said, ‘What I am doing is exactly in line with the will of his father’?” Luyang Wenju heeded Mozi’s advice and refrained from fighting Zheng.
  In another case, Mozi recommended Xiangziniu to take Shengchuo in his regime. However, Shengchuo participated in all three of Xiangziniu’s invasions of the country of Lu and Mozi had to send Gaosunzi to ask Xiangziniu to dismiss Shengchuo, saying, “I sent Shengchuo to stop Xiangziniu from being overbearing and committing evil. Contrary to my wishes however, Shenchuo took part in Xiangzhiniu’s sins for personal gain, placing his personal interests above all else, even though he perfectly understands the concept of righteousness.”
  Today, people around the world should follow Mozi’s example with the aim of completing his unfinished work. We should establish the Non-Governmental United Nations and strive for world peace.
  1. A theory of the Non-Governmental UN.
  a. The tenet of the Non-Governmental UN.
  --- transcend countries, races,religions and ideology, wipe out selfishness, hatreds and disputes, carry forward the true love of human beings and promote the world peace .
  b. Vision of the Non-Governmental UN.
  --- turn war crys into kind smiles and melt down guns into working tools;
  --- "In a good world, the horses should not be driven to fight. They should be employed in cultivation." (Zhuangzi);
  --- build up a democratic, free, law-ruling, just, harmonious and humanistic new world.
  c. Philosophy of the Non-Governmental UN: The philosophy of the Non-Governmental UN is based on the philosophy of peace, the philosophy of harmony and the  philosophy of love. It has roots in the old oriental philosophic thoughts such as Yin and Yang theory, harmony idea etc. It also absorbs essentials from the thoughts of Confucius, Mozi, Mencius, Xunzi, Laozi, Zhuangzi,Sunzi,Guiguzi(They all lived in the spring autumn and warring states period,770—221,B.C.)
  The Yin and Yang theory represents some features of Chinese thoughts: dialectic, symbolic and general. This theory thinks that
  ---  "Tao is a combination of Yin and Yang"《Yijing》;
  --- "Everything embodys Yang with its Yin"《Laozi》;
  --- "If Yin and Yang amalgamate perfectly, things come up";
  --- "Yang has its roots in Yin and Yin comes from Yang";
  --- "Supreme Ultimate(Taiji) produces the two sides of things and the two sides make the four aspects.
  The harmony idea, which incarnates the monistic and harmonic values of the Chinese, refers to the sages’ teachings:
  --- "Yin and Yang coexist harmonically";
  --- "Perfect amalgamation makes things" ;
  --- "Perfect amalgamation of Heaven and Earth is the fundamental way to produce things";
  --- "Harmony and difference make things";
  --- "the doctrine of the mean";
  --- "Harmony is valuable";
  --- "There is a unity of man and nature, knowledge and practice, substance and function, obligation and desire";
  --- "Mind is the truth";
  --- "Tao is heavenly principles";
  --- "Ending means starting and starting means ending";
  --- "Grand Unity"(Zhuangzi), etc.
  The philosophy of Confucius, Mozi, Mencius, Laozi, Zhuangzi,Sunzi,Guiguzi:
  ---- Confucius promoted "rule by a royal(benevolent) way", "universal society", "be kind to others", "treat the others in a way you want the others to treat you", "Never put your dislikes on others" ;
  ---- Mozi advocated "no aggression", "equal love", "universal love", "seek harmony";
  ---- Mencius brought up the ideas that, "People are more important than the ruler", "benevolent government", "no war", and "A best fighter deserves severest punishment";
  ---- Laozi pointed out "Weapon is an evil omen", "win the world by no action", "Never try to override the world with weapons", "Power leads to collapse as a rigid wooden stick can be broken easily", "action by no action", "Never trouble the people. They can cultivate themselves well and have good behaviors";
  ---- Zhuangzi held the views of "boundless", "no contradiction", "Don't conquer the others by fighting", "Ten suns appears together", "Tolerance in things", "spend time with all natural things", "I live together with the Heaven and the Earth, and all things and I form a unity".
  Confucianist's family value, universal government thought, idea that the world belongs to all people; the military strategist school(in the spring autumn and warring states period,770—221,B.C.)'s "to conquer your rivals by no means of fighting", "the highest fight is no fight", "to win by no fight"; and political strategist school(in the spring autumn and warring states period,770—221,B.C.)'s peaceful alignment idea can be the fundamental theories of the Non-Governmental UN.
  Besides the traditional principles and the idea of peace, also, we'll introduce new theories reflecting current world issues and nowadays life, such as
  --- the theory of peace;
  --- the theory of ruling by people;
  --- the theory of civil society;
  --- the theory of NGO;
  --- the theory of true love, general love ,fraternity and great love;
  --- the theory transcending countries, governments, religions, and races;
  ---the theory of humanism, freedom, democracy, justice and harmony, human-centered theory.

  2. The strategy of the Non-Governmental UN:
  a. Nongovernmental.
  World affairs should be handled by the world people under democratic procedures, so nongovernmental organizations, independent celebrities, representative people and folk societies are the natural core of the Non-Governmental UN and the main forces to maintain world peace. We'll do the following things within the Non-Governmental UN:
  --- Unite nongovernmental forces of all countries to cease violence and call for a practice to solve conflicts both domestic and international through dialogues and negotiations.
  --- Make an effort to promote people's livelihood and the level of economy; develop market economy, private economy and folk economy.
  --- Support to build a civil society,an autonomous society; make efforts to develop NGO and public-interest organizations.
  --- Through media propagate widely the ideas of true love, universal love and peace; start from individuals, couples and families to create a culture of love and peace.
  b. The organizations of the Non-Governmental UN.
  The Non-Governmental UN will be formed by a General Congress, a Council, a Standing Council.
  --- The General Congress.
  The Congress is composed of representatives from different countries through democratic election according to their population (for details,see the Non-Governmental UN Charter below), so as to reflect their respective popularity.
  --- The Council and the Standing Council.
  To avoid the countries with a large population forming a supreme authority, we organize a council. The Council consists of members selected from representatives of the General Congress; one country, one member. This council then will elect the members of Standing Council. The Standing Council deals with ordinary affairs,relatively serious things or by request of any member of the Standing Council,some decisions must be voted in the Council. Vital decisions must be voted in the General Congress.
  Each member of the General Congress, the Council and the Standing Council has only one vote.
  --- The Court of the Non-Governmental UN.
  Apart from the General Congress, we create a Court which works independently.
  c. The steps of creating peace UN.
  1). Cooperate with the United Nations and communicate with all countries to discuss the matter of building the Non-Governmental UN and try to win their support in finance and activities. Meanwhile, try other ways to ensure an abundant outlay.
  2). Draw up a charter of the Non-Governmental UN, regulations of the General Congress and Councils,rules of the Court.
  3). Elect representatives in each country through democratic way.
  4). Form the General Congress, the Council, the Standing Council and the Court.
  d. some practices:
  (a). The slogan of the Non-Governmental UN:
  True love creates peace.
  (b). Anthem of the Non-Governmental UN:

  Heart Is Vaster

  There's no space vaster than heart.
  There's no treasure more perpetual than peace.
  There's no feeling more beautiful than love.
  There's no humanity more noble than tolerance

  Long live the heart,
  Long live the peace,
  Long live the love,
  Long live the tolerance.

  Sky is vast and heart is more,
  Time never ceases and peace neither,
  Life is beautiful and love is more
  Humanity is noble and tolerance is greater

  Long live the heart,
  Long live the peace,
  Long live the love,
  Long live the tolerance.

  3. A draft of the Non-Governmental UN Charter
  Article 1.
  The tenet of the Non-Governmental UN is,
  --- transcending countries, races and religions;
  --- wiping out selfishness, hatreds and disputes;
  --- carrying forward the true love of human beings;
  --- promoting the world peace.
  Article 2.
  The Non-Governmental UN consists of the General Congress and the Court.
  Article 3.
  The General Congress is composed of representatives from different countries through democratic election according to their populations and reflects the popularity. It is re-elected every four years. A country with a population less than 10 million has 4 representatives or less in the General Congress; 10 million to 20 million, 6 representatives or less; 20 million to 40 million,8 representatives or less; 40 million to 80 million,10 representatives; 80 million to 100 million,12 representatives or less; 120 million to 220 million,14 representatives or less; more than 220 million,16 representatives or less. The General Congress ,at least, holds meetings once every year. Through the nomination of the Council, the Congress elects a person as the chairman of the congress.
  Article 4.
  Elected members among the Congress representatives form the Council; one country,one member. The Council, at least, holds meetings twice every year and makes a re-election every four years to form the Standing Council. The Standing Council is the standing body of the Peace UN. And also, if need be,the Standing Council can set up a Secretariat.
  Article 5.
  The director of the Council and the Standing Council, namely the Secretary General of the Non-Governmental UN, is the legal person who represents the Non-Governmental UN and in charge of presiding over the meetings of the Council and the Standing Council. Also, there are some deputy directors. Directors and deputy directors are elected by the Council.
  Article 6.
  The Standing Council deals with common affairs of the Non-Governmental UN. Important decisions like financial budget and final accounts, expenditure over 100 thousand US dollars, matters concerning all countries,or by requests of any members of the standing Council,the decision must be voted in the Council. Vital decisions like financial budget and final accounts, expenditure over 1 million US dollars, constituting and modifying the Charter, making a statement of war and peace,must be voted in the General Congress.
  Article 7.
  The General Congress sets up Economy Committee, Society Committee, Culture Committee, Human Rights Committee etc. Each committee consists of 15 members. Members are from the General Congress through election. Each country has no more than 1 member in each committee. Members of each committee elect a Chairman to call or preside over its meetings.
  Article 8.
  The Court is founded to make nongovernmental trial and condemnation. It, apart from the General Congress, the Council and the Standing Council, works independently. The General Congress elects 15 judges for the Court. The judge's term is 6 years. A country has no more than one judge in the Court. Judges elect a person among them as the head of the Court.
  Article 9.
  The Council elects 20 or 21 members for the Standing Council. And, the chairman of the General Congress, the chairmen of the committees and the head of the Court are the natural members of the Standing Council. The number of the Standing Council is odd.
  Article 10.
  The General Congress, the Council, the Standing Council, the committees, the Court and its tribunal adopt one-member-one-vote system. Resolutions are valid only when two thirds or above of the total representatives or judges attend.
  Article 11.
  Resolutions about common affairs can be passed under the agreement of half members or above. Vital decision, like constituting or modifying the Charter, impeaching the director of the Council (Secretary General), making a decision and a declaration about war and peace, is valid only when it gains two-third or above favourable votes.
  Article 12.
  The General Congress ,the committees, the Council, the Standing Council and the Court must formulate working rules and regulations in accordance with the Charter.
  Article 13.
  This Charter becomes effective immediately upon signature by the sponsor countries (no less than 20).

 


  墨子是中国古代最伟大的民生思想家、宗教家,世界上最早的和平主义领袖。
  墨家哲学、宗教观主张“兼爱”、“天志”(顺应上天让人民安宁富裕的意志)、“明鬼”(相信鬼神对民众、官员的监督),他组成中国最早的宗教团体,自任第一任领袖——钜子;他为和平主义东奔西走,留下了许多动人的事迹。
  《墨子公输第五十》:公输般为楚国制造了一种叫云梯的攻械器械,将用它来攻打宋国。墨子听说后,从鲁国动身,走了十天十夜到达楚都郢,见到了公输般(鲁班)。
  公输般说:“先生有何见教?”墨子说:“北方有人侮辱了我, 我想借你的手杀掉他。”公输般很不高兴。墨子说:“我愿送你十镒黄金。”公输般说:“我奉行仁义,决不杀人。”墨子站起来,对公输般拜了两次,说:“请让我讲 讲义。我在北方听说你造了云梯,将用来攻打宋国,宋国有什么罪过?楚国土地有余而人口不足。牺牲自己所不足的人民,而去争夺自己所过剩的土地,这不能算是明智。宋国无罪而去攻打它,不能算是仁义。明知这些道理却不去谏诤,不能算是忠。谏诤达不到目的,不能算强。你主张仁义,不杀一个人,却去杀宋国众多的人,这不能算明白仁义。”公输般被说服了。墨子说:“既然这样,为什么不停止攻打宋国呢?”公输般说:“不行,我已答应过楚王了。”墨子说:“为 什么不引我见楚王呢?”公输般说:“行”。
  墨子见到了楚王,说:“现在这里有一个人,丢下自己华贵的彩车,而邻居有辆破车,他却想去偷;丢下自己的锦绣衣服,而邻居有粗布衣服,他也想去偷;丢下自己的好饭肉食,而邻居有糟糠,他依然想去偷。这是个怎样的人呢?”楚王说:“他一定是得了盗窃病。”墨子说:“楚国的土地,方圆五千里,宋国的土地,方圆五百里,这就像彩车和破车相比。楚国有个云梦泽,犀牛、糜鹿满地都是,长江、汉水出产鱼鳖鼋鼍,算得上天下最富饶的了,宋国却是连野鸡、野兔、鲫鱼都不出的地方,这就像好饭肉食与糟糠相比。楚国有高大的松树、纹理很细的梓树、楠木和樟树,宋国却连大树都没有,这就像锦绣衣裳与粗布衣服相比。我拿这三件事来说,大王要去攻打宋国,这就与这个有盗窃病的人同类。臣认为大王必伤损‘仁义’而得不到宋国。”楚王说:“说得好!虽然这样,可公输般已为我造好了云梯,必能攻下宋国。”
  楚王于是诏见公输般。墨子解下腰带围作一座城池的样子, 用筷子当守城器械,公输般九次设置巧妙的器械攻城,墨子九次抵挡住。公输般攻城的器械用尽了,墨子守城的方法还有余。公输般屈服了,但说:“我知道对付你的办法了,我不说出来。”墨子也说:“我知道你怎么对付我,我也不说。”楚王问这是什么原因,墨子说:“公输般的意思,不过是想杀掉我,杀了我,宋国就没有人能守城了,可以攻下了。但是我的学生禽滑厘等三百人,已经拿着我的守御器械,在宋国城墙上等待着楚兵侵犯呢!虽然可以杀了我,但守御的人是杀不尽的。”楚王说:“讲得好!我不攻打宋国了。”
  鲁阳文君将要攻打郑国,墨子听说后去阻止他,对鲁阳文君说:“现在假使鲁阳四境之内,大城攻打小城,大家族攻打小家族,杀害那里的人民,抢夺那里的牛马、猪狗、布帛、米粮和财物,你将怎么办呢?”鲁阳文君说:“鲁阳四境之内都是我的臣民。现在如果大城攻打小城,大家族攻打小家族,掠夺别人的财物,那么我一定会严厉惩罚他们。”墨子说:“上天兼有整个天下,也像你拥有鲁阳四境一样。现在你举兵攻打郑国,上天对你的惩罚不会降临吗?”鲁阳文君说:“先生为何要阻止我攻伐郑国呢?我攻打郑国是顺应上天的意志啊!郑国人三代都把自己的国君杀了,上天对他加以惩罚,使他们三年五谷收成不了,我将助天惩罚郑国。”墨子说:“郑国人三代把自己的国君杀了,因而上天对郑国人加以惩罚,使他们三年五谷收成不了,上天的惩罚已经足够了。现在你又举兵去攻打郑国,还说攻打郑国是顺应天的意志。这就像这里有个人,他的儿子蛮横凶暴不成才,所以做父亲的就鞭打他,而邻家的长者也举起木棍打他,说:我打他,是顺从他父亲的意志。这岂不是很荒谬吗?” 鲁阳文君只好停止攻打郑国。
  墨子让胜绰去项子牛那里做官,项子牛三次侵犯鲁国的领土,胜绰三次都参与了。墨子听说这件事后,就派高孙子去请求项子牛辞退胜绰,说:“我让胜绰去,是要他制止骄横并且匡正邪僻。现在胜绰俸禄多了就欺骗先生,先生三次侵犯鲁国,胜绰三次都参与了,这是挥鞭策马。我听说,口中讲仁义却不去实行,这是明知故犯。胜绰不是不懂,他是把俸禄看得比仁义还重”。
  现在,全世界都应当学习墨子的精神,完成墨子未竟的和平事业,创立民间联合国,致力于全球和平。
  一、民间联合国宗旨:超越国家、种族、意识形态的界限,团结各大宗教,消弭自私、仇恨与纷争,弘扬人间大爱,促进世界和平。
  二、民间联合国战略。
  民间性:世界的事务应由世界人民通过民主的程序协商解决,因此,非政府组织、独立名人、代表性人物、民间社会必然成为民间联合国的中坚,成为维护世界和平的主要力量。应当通过民间联合国——联合各国的民间人士,制止暴力,提倡以对话、谈判的方式解决国家之间、国家内部的矛盾。
  组成:成立民间联合国大会、民间联合国理事会、民间联合国常务理事会,民间联合国大会由各国按照人口比例(见民间联合国章程)通过民主遴选的方式选派、组成,以反映民间联合国的民众性;但为了避免人口大国的“霸权”,民间联合国理事会又从民间联合国大会代表中按照一国一人选派、组成理事会;理事会每四年经由民主改选组成常务理事会。常务理事会民主决定民间联合国的日常事务,比较重大的决策或者应常务理事会任何成员的要求,决策须经理事会投票通过;重大决策须经民间联合国大会投票通过。民间联合国大会、理事会、常务理事会均采用一人一票制。另在民间联合国大会之外,设立独立的民间联合国法院。
  建立的步骤:
  1、 与联合国平等合作、与各国政府沟通,商讨建立民间联合国事宜,希望获得他们在资金、开展活动等方面的支持。同时,积极争取其它的资金来源,确保民间联合国的长期经费的充足。
  2、 制定民间联合国章程、民间联合国大会及各委员会工作条例、民间联合国法院规则。
  3、在各国经由民主程序选举产生联合国大会代表。
  4、正式组成民间联合国大会、理事会、常务理事会;民间联合国法院。
  三、民间联合国实务:
  民间联合国(民间联合国)的宣传口号:大爱缔造和平。Great love creates peace。
  民间联合国歌曲:

  心灵辽阔

  没有比心灵更辽阔的时空,
  没有比和平更永恒的价值,
  没有比大爱更美好的情感,
  没有比宽容更高尚的人格。
  心灵永恒,
  和平永恒,
  大爱永恒,
  宽容永恒。

  天空辽阔,心灵更辽阔,
  时间永恒,和平更永恒,
  生命美好,大爱更美好,
  人性高尚,宽容更高尚。
  心灵永恒,
  和平永恒,
  大爱永恒,
  宽容永恒。

  Heart Is Vaster
  
  There's no space vaster than heart.
  There's no treasure more perpetual than peace.
  There's no feeling more beautiful than love.
  There's no humanity nobler than tolerance.
  
  Long live the heart,
  Long live the peace,
  Long live the love,
  Long live the tolerance.
  
  Sky is vast and heart is more,
  Time never ceases and peace neither,
  Life is beautiful and love is more.
  Humanity is noble and tolerance is greater.

  Long live the heart,
  Long live the peace,
  Long live the love,
  Long live the tolerance.
  四、民间联合国宪章草案。
  第一条  设立民间联合国的宗旨是,超越国家、种族、意识形态的界限,团结各大宗教,消弭自私、仇恨与纷争,弘扬人间大爱,促进世界和平。
  第二条  民间联合国由民间联合国大会、民间联合国法院组成。
  第三条  民间联合国大会由各国按照人口比例通过民主遴选的方式选派、组成,以反映民间联合国的民众性。每四年改选一次。一千万人口以下的国家选派4名或4名以下的代表;一千万至两千万人口的国家选派6名或6名以下的代表;两千万至四千万人口的国家选派8名或8名以下的代表;四千万至八千万人口的国家选派10名或10名以下的代表;八千万至一亿四千万人口的国家选派12名或12名以下的代表;一亿四千万至两亿两千万人口的国家选派14名或14名以下的代表;两亿两千万以上人口的国家选派16名或16名以下的代表。民间联合国大会每年至少召开一次全体会议;大会设主席一人,经由民间联合国理事会提名、由民间联合国大会选举产生。
  第四条  从民间联合国大会代表中按照一国一人选派、组成理事会,理事会根据需要每年至少召开2次会议;理事会每四年经由民主改选产生常务理事会;常务理事会是民间联合国的常设机构。另根据需要由常务委员会决定设立秘书处。
  第五条  民间联合国理事会、常务理事会理事长即民间联合国秘书长,是民间联合国的法人代表和对外代表,负责主持召开理事会和常务理事会会议。另设副理事长若干。理事长(秘书长)和副理事长经由理事会选举产生。
  第六条  常务理事会负责民间联合国的日常事务。比较重大的决策即财政预算、决算草案,总额超过10万美元的项目支出,涉及到所有国家权益的事项,或者应常务理事会任何成员的要求,决策须经理事会投票通过;重大决策即财政预算、决算,总额超过100万美元的项目支出,民间联合国章程的制定、修改,以民间联合国名义发表的决议、宣言,须经民间联合国大会投票通过。
  第七条  民间联合国大会下设经济委员会、社会委员会、文化委员会、人权委员会等,各委员会由15人组成,委员会成员由民间联合国大会选举产生,一国在每个委员会中不能超过1名代表。各委员会主席经由选举产生,负责召集和主持会议。
  第八条  民间联合国法院旨在对于进行民间的审判和谴责,它独立于民间联合国大会及其理事会、常务理事会。但15法官由民间联合国大会民主选举产生,任期6年,一国不能选派超过1名法官。法院院长由法官选举产生。
  第九条  民间联合国理事会选举产生20或21名常务理事会成员,除此之外,常务理事会成员还当然包括民间联合国大会主席、各委员会主席及民间联合国法院院长。常务理事会总人数应为奇数。
  第十条  民间联合国大会、理事会、常务理事会、各委员会,民间联合国法院及法庭审判均采用一人一票制。三分之二或三分之二以上代表(或法官)出席方有效。
  第十一条  民间联合国的一般事务采行半数或半数以上通过制,特别重大决策即民间联合国宪章的制定、修改,弹劾理事会理事长(秘书长),以民间联合国名义发表的决议、宣言,采行三分之二或三分之二以上票通过制。
  第十二条  民间联合国大会及各委员会、理事会、常务理事会、民间联合国法院均应根据本宪章制订工作条例或规则。
  第十三条  本宪章自发起国(不少于20国)签署后立即生效。

  2008-7


  (“胡星斗中国问题学、民生经济学”网站:http://www.huxingdou.com.cn。)

 

  • 上一篇文章: 联合国发起反腐新倡议 帮助发展中国家追回资产

  • 下一篇文章: 欧洲为何能走向一体化
  • 发表评论】【告诉好友】【打印此文】【关闭窗口
     最新5篇热点文章
  • 任正非:我们不向美国人民…[50]

  • 学历只是中学毕业的国学大…[52]

  • 坚持禅修的钱穆[64]

  • 钱穆的坐功[59]

  • 中国人生活的最长处——生…[52]

  •  
     最新5篇推荐文章
  • 罗织经[3]

  • 21世纪:战争还是和平?[6]

  • 美国当年是怎样崛起的[6]

  • 中国的国际定位问题与“韬…[6]

  • 要想强,就要有力[4]

  •  
     相 关 文 章
  • 评刘伯温[218]

  • 建议取消“和谐社会”的提…[887]

  • 从追求GDP转变为追求HDI[1220]

  • 中国为何没有一流的大师[1163]

  • 既要尊孔更要尊墨,墨子是…[1353]


  •   网友评论:(只显示最新10条。评论内容只代表网友观点,与本站立场无关!)
        没有任何评论
    设为首页 | 加入收藏 | 联系站长 | 友情链接 | 版权申明 | 
    版权所有 Copyright © 2003  中华民族精神网
        站长:谢昭武 QQ:3148778231